A new model for solving the problematic of the Global Warming is here proposed and described. Differently from the traditional approach, that seems mainly to take into consideration the thermal content of the atmospheric carbon dioxide as consequence of the spectroscopic infrared radiation adsorption of the solar light, both incident and reflected, the following many other factors will be introduced and discussed, to develop an organic and coherent complete treatment, that eventually would include all the most relevant points. The interaction of the solar light is considered as a whole of different frequency regions, as it actually really consists, that should represent the only valid light source for the various experiments, and not just relying on the very specific wavelength range of the infrared light frequency. So that starting from the radio-waves, to the microwaves, the infrared radiation, the visible light, the UV radiation, the X-Rays and the gamma rays, all in order of increasing frequency and energy content, every component of the solar light must be taken into consideration. As well as all the atmospheric gases, including the Nitrogen and the Oxygen must be evaluated, which, already them alone together, represent over the 99 % of the whole atmospheric composition. Among other it will be pointed out how they also can store vibrational energy (IR radiation), just like the Carbon Dioxide.
The problematic can be solved by considering three different contexts of the planet earth, that can actively contribute to the Global Warming: the seas/oceans, the atmosphere and the surface of the earth soil.
The detergents, whose biodegradability in environmental context, especially the marine one, at the various depths, can be difficult to be estimated, can let dissolve many kinds of chemicals and products into the marine water. The plenty of substances that can enter in this way into the marine water “solution” or as partly suspended particles is at the same time enormous and very various, from fuels to solvents, from synthetic chemicals to biologically active ones, from anti-freezing to petrol- contaminated waters, as well as inorganic complexes can also additionally form, or conversely, in presence of the proper counter-ions, drastically lower some important cationic species through chemical precipitation from the marine solution, because of the presence of ligands (like for instance the EDTA) in huge amounts. One would possibly observe that in any case the concentration the pollutants would remain too low to cause problems. This belief represents certainly a remarkable mistake. Indeed by far the first factor that should count is the actual overall amount of these chemicals that meanwhile have been wasted into the seas/oceans, because, until the very last drop or smallest amount of pollutant, this one will exert anyway by it own on the whole a negative effect and remain there for undefined long time.
The marine salinity level, the pH, the oceanic currents, the gas transfer capabilities of the seas/oceans and the extent as well as the vitality of the marine biosphere, in turn indirectly linked to the atmospheric gas consumption, represent all very sensitive variables. The same light adsorption through the waters of the seas/oceans can become in this way strongly affected, as well as the corresponding light penetration and diffusion to higher depths. The oxygenation and the gas transfer capacity of the marine medium would become terribly reduced; and the overall biochemical outcome and functional extent of the marine biosphere too. Also the oceanic currents could vary appreciably, depending on several parameters, like water density, viscosity, salinity, temperature at the various depths, the extent of extraneous pollutant substances dissolved in the water, the evaporation from the marine water would become as well as seriously reduced or altered. The canalisation works can indirectly affect dramatically the salinity composition and the pH of the seas/oceans, because of the drastic reduction of the influx flows from the rivers and hence the related inorganic salts and compounds supply (particularly carbonates and bicarbonates). As well as in the atmosphere, again, the chemicals, in form of volatile vapours of solvents, fuels, volatile synthetic chemicals, further indirectly artificially arised organic and inorganic volatile compounds, like the one from plastic polymeric material, asphalt or exhaust fumes degradation by products would also exert an important negative role.
The atmospheric gases are classified here in a completely different way, according to the rate at which they can be transformed or fixed on the earth surface. Particularly the nitrogen (and the nitrogen oxides) together with the heavier noble gases represent, in the ambit of this new approach, very important if not really crucial Global Warming causing natural atmospheric gases. The physician vision of the gases is here also used, according to which the temperature is microscopically a function of the number and of the average translational speed of the gas particles per volume.
The earth surface altered from the human being, due for instance to the deforestation, to the presence of the farm land for the agriculture and to the cemented and asphalted urban centres, like also the vast desert areas, heat up on the whole much more than the areas occupied from green vegetation during the daily time. From a thermal point of view the green areas do not particularly heat up in presence of solar radiation, as they transform the solar light in biochemical vital functions and processes. Also the so called green energy can be partly negative in the ambit of the Global Warming, as it generates energy (and often stores it) and hence adds more heat at the earth surface.
The humidity factor of the atmosphere is crucial: the new model described here would drive the system earth towards an incremented evaporation, because mainly a tendency to a less gas containing atmosphere would arise – and particularly averagely with a minor pressure -, as a result of a more gas demanding and consuming earth surface, so also with more effective interaction of the solar radiation on the earth surface, particularly at the marine level (fact that also favour the evaporation process). And with more evaporatively effective trade-winds (in turn obviously in the opposite direction of the earth rotation on the own axis), due to a less gas containing and less diffused atmosphere, not only would particularly magnify the atmospheric evaporation from the marine surface, but also further interaction effects caused at the outer layers of the atmosphere (delays as consequences of the earth rotation movement) would indirectly magnify the power of the atmospheric overall motion, particularly of the trade winds in case of a low gas containing atmosphere. More evaporation means more clouds, what would exert a hindering action, as it is known, towards the overall solar light penetration, so that they can prevent a considerable part of the same solar light to reach the earth surface in their presence. This means a lower heat content and temperature at the earth surface and at the lower levels of the atmosphere. The incremented water vapour formation would averagely tend to compensate for a less gas containing and under-pressured atmosphere, which would constitute in this way the real cooling system of the planet. Trade Winds avid of water are the ones which will bring the planet towards a sure condition of no Global Warming, with conspicuous atmospheric precipitations and humidity in general, with less extended desert areas, more luxuriant forests, more wild life, more human wellness and more nature development. A more humid and cool earth, with more clouds, is the one with less Global Warming. And such state of things is allowed through this new vision of tackling the problem of the Global Warming in relation with the atmosphere: minimisation of the Nitrogen, of the noble Gases and particularly of the pollutants in general (solvents, fuels and chemical vapours, uncontrolled waste fumes, decomposition products of artificial material, like plastics, asphalt together with partially burned carbonized particles from the exhaust fumes), instead of the carbon dioxide emissions.
A wider amount of scientific research in the ambit of the natural Nitrogen fixation in the soil is necessary, as well as new strategies in the soil fertilisation have to be tackled too, to avoid to employ to much nitrogen.
Always better quality of the exhaust gases, better technologies in minimizing their pollutants in the urban areas and to transform their by-products, particularly the organic ones, efficiently as quickly as possible, particularly in the immediate nearby of the big towns.
Implications of the corrosion and of the irrigation of the agriculture are also developed. Moreover how the photosynthetic process could be influenced from that.
The recovery and the recycling of all the chemical nutrients of biological origin together with their wise and careful redistribution in the environment represents another crucial aspect (biological deposits, sewer sludge and cemeteries rests).
The melting of the marine arctic/antartic ice extensions can newly be also explained with variations of the sea salinity and presence of chemical extraneous substances like for instance the detergents (cryoscopic lowering).
If the various biochemical pathways are scientifically formulated correctly, very surprisingly negligible importance has been until today attributed to the occurrence of the “phosphate” group, - and obviously indirectly of the element phosphor both in the food as well as in the environment - with a plenty of implications, not only environmental, for instance also in health, in relation to illnesses like the cancer (**).
Interesting potentially extremely important implications of the gas methane are also introduced.
2) The Seas and the Oceans
3) The Earth Atmosphere
4) The thermal Factors at the Earth-Surface
5) Enclosure: links to the current affairs
The phenomenon of the Global Warming/Greenhouse Effect refers to the general increasing of the average annual temperatures of the planet earth, as consequence of the whole human activities linked to our civilisation. Several easily observed variables like the increasing extension of the desert areas during the past decades, the modality and the extent of the atmospheric precipitations, the melting of the glaciers, as well as the reduction if the ice-extension at the poles, have been motivated as a consequence of the Global Warming/Greenhouse Effect. Some human activity, like the deforestation, the liberation in the atmosphere of huge amounts carbon dioxide seem, until today, ones among the most important causes for this phenomenon. Traditionally, as already observed, the problematic of the Global Warming/Greenhouse Effect has been scientifically motivated mostly through the thermal effects of a kind of low frequency radiation adsorption of the carbon dioxide, CO2, contained both in the incident and in the reflected solar light, the infrared radiation or IR. But actually the same solar light contains several other frequency ranges of the light radiation, in big part clearly more energetic of the low frequency IR radiation: the higher is the frequency of the light range and the bigger is its energy content, so in principle able to transmit to the atmospheric gases more heat and energy in general than the infrared radiation itself. The atmospheric gas supposed to mainly adsorb the energetic content of the IR radiation, and to store it as heat, is the carbon dioxide, the CO2, whose percentage amount in the atmosphere reaches nevertheless only about the 0.03 % of the total. Further important considerations can be nevertheless done also about the vibrational energy, if one only grasped the difference between the spectroscopic adsorption or detection and the energy storage in a molecule, so that, the IR “transparent” Nitrogen (N2) and Oxygen (O2), because of the fact of being “homonuclear”, that is consisting of two atoms of the same element - so not able to adsorb infrared radiation according to the accepted scientific criteria - will be in spite of this certainly able to vibrate powerfully after the internal transfer of from other energy forms, like heat, electronic excitation, rotation and the like, so that also to store energy as vibrational one. In this way they would become “automatically” very relevant Greenhouse Effect/Global Warming gases already even under the traditional approach, particularly if one considers, that the Nitrogen (N2) represents over the 78 % of the whole earth atmosphere, and the two together, the Nitrogen plus the Oxygen, over the 99 %.
Just like the heat that is retained in a greenhouse, the carbon dioxide would store such heat after the adsorption of vibrational energy from the solar incident and reflected infrared radiation, that in turn would be linked to the vibrations of the bonds in the molecule. But then such vibrational energy is transformed in heat, that is another kind of energy, which in the gases is firstly represented from their translational motion or their kinetic energy.
The seas and the oceans represent actually one of the most important factors in affecting the temperature of the planet, as they can store a very huge amount of heat. But also in influencing the gas transfer processes with the atmosphere, the evaporation extent, so roughly indirectly the overall clouds extension, a real barrier against the solar radiation.
The soil represents also a very important thermal factor, as it is able to heat up the lower levels of the atmosphere. Several variables seem to influence its heating up capacity, like the deforestation, the presence of urban contexts and their easy warming up infrastructures, the cement, the asphalt, the metal used for artificial purposes and even the farm land. All these variables will exert important thermal implications.
The Greenhouse Effect is also employed to describe the phenomenon of the atmospheric gas heat retention. But a greenhouse is actually something different, namely normally mostly transparent, but fundamentally consisting in a closed system.
Conversely the atmosphere is an open one, so that, if the overall amount of gas at a specific temperature were forced to occupy a wider volume than the one that the gravitational field of the earth can in any case afford, then a corresponding amount of gas will become lost in the vacuum of the open space, to which also should be returned a considerable amount of heat.
The following sections will hopefully help in finding out new causes and consequently new solutions to the problem of the Global Warming.
2 The Seas and the Oceans
In the case of the seas/oceans the detergents wasted into the water will be able, independently from the degree of their specific biodegradability, to affect dramatically this medium. They dissolve easily in the water at all levels and can let enter into the water solution a further relatively very huge amount of organic chemical substances, partly also as suspended heterogeneous particles, like, for instance, organic solvents, fuels, organic synthetic products, oils, “dirt” and the like, that otherwise would remain naturally separated, and much easier detectable, a fact that can have a very important effect on the characteristics of the marine system. But also the biology and the biochemistry of the marine biosphere would become as well as seriously altered due to the inhibited penetration of the solar light to deeper levels, as it would become adsorbed from all these substances. Analogously the incident solar light would become differently diffused or diffracted, and moreover also progressively attenuated from the suspended colloidal particles, hindering in this way the development of the marine life at deeper levels, a dramatic negative effect for the overall marine bio-system. As a result the overall gas consumption and transformation (primarily of the carbon-dioxide, CO2) might become severely reduced.
The same viscosity and gas solubility in the marine medium would get appreciably altered, hindering the gas transfer capabilities of the oceans at all levels, particularly at the surface, in their interchange with the atmospheric gases, and additionally influencing the oceanic currents, firstly because of the meanwhile changed values of temperature, density, viscosity and salinity of the water. In this way indeed the gas solubility and, as already pointed out, the gas transfer capacity with the atmosphere, together with the extent and the rate of such interchange at the sea surface be strongly altered.
A measure of the concentration of the detergents in marine context must be done very carefully, and, independently from the result of the analysis, is the overall amount that is wasted in them the one that in any case should count, because such parameter is directly linked to the whole thermal outcome of the environmental response, both thermal as well as chemical and biochemical. This would already give an idea of how immense can be the thermal outcome caused from the detergents, the organic solvents, the fuels, the oils and other petrol products possibly dissolved or suspended in the marine water, and, as a result, the corresponding varied global effects, even if the apparent concentration of these pollutants in the marine water might at first glance seem to be almost negligible by analyses with common instruments.
The concept of trace must therefore be completely newly seen. That is the goal should not just consist in stating at which concentration the possible traces of pollutants are present, but firstly whether they are present. After that it can be certainly possible to outline a scientific interdependence between the concentration of the polluting traces and the general macroscopic effects. The priority in other words should essentially consist in evaluating the presence or not of specific trace pollutants at even negligible concentrations. It becomes also evident how any trace of pollutants, related with their whole amount in the sea/ocean water, even if locally present at extremely tiny concentrations, corresponds in any case forcefully to a relatively immense overall quantity, if one considers the seas/oceans in their entirety. So that when dealing with the marine medium it should be reasonably necessary to extend the trace pollutants search to a much bigger amount of water.
In fact in the case of a given metal complex, for instance of general formula M(m+)Ln, in marine context, being forceful the concentration of the ligand “L” extremely low even in case of a very conspicuous specific extent of pollution with such ligand (very huge amounts of chemical discharge into the seas/oceans of that chemical ligand) the degree of formation of such metal complex will be correspondingly extremely reduced, for instance with the very partial formula M(m+)Ln (n-0,999999..), still will correspond macroscopically to an immense overall amount, indeed dissolved virtually in the whole marine water liquid mass, which would imply variable and unpredictable disastrous consequences.
Also the opposite effect can obviously occur, that is the rising in the concentration of the marine water solution of a specific anion can bring to the lowering, correspondingly fixed through the solubility product, of the concentration in solution of a specific compound, and as a result the lowering, because of precipitation of it as insoluble excess, of the concentration in the marine water solution of the corresponding cation, with actually quite unpredictable consequences particularly for the marine biology.
Also the opposite effect can obviously occur, that is the rising in the concentration of the marine water solution of a specific anion can bring to the lowering, correspondingly fixed through the solubility product, of the concentration in solution of a specific compound, and as a result the lowering, because of precipitation of it insoluble, of the concentration in the marine water solution of the corresponding cation, with actually quite unpredictable consequences particularly for the marine biology.
Also many inorganic salts or compounds, for their provenance and sort essentially extraneous to the marine water, would represent a not to underestimating pollutant factor, that what is more the seas/oceans do not have possibility, like for instance the rivers and the lakes, to renew their water. Such pollutants could in principle remain for undefined time in solution and increase in concentration steadily for the forthcoming future. Chemical “ligands”, able to coordinate and to let further dissolve metals cations in water to form soluble complexes, but possibly also to drastically diminish their concentration through the formation of insoluble compounds, would dramatically worsen this aspect. Typical chemical “ligands” able to form coordination compounds are for instance the followings anionic or neutral species: NH3, CN-, CH3CO2-, F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, SCN-, PO43-, OH-, S2-, XO3-, XO4-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CrO42-, BO2-, RCO2-, and so on (in order amino, cyanide, acetate, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate, phosphate, hydroxyl, sulfide, halate, perhalate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, chromate, meta-borate, general carboxylate) plus the so called “polydentate ligands”, able to build through “chelation” particularly strong coordination compounds, like for instance the following chemical species: H2NCH2CH2NH2, -2OC-CO2-, (-2OCCH2-)2NCH2CH2N(-CH2CO2-)2 (in order ethylenediamino, oxalate, ethylenediaminotetracetate or EDTA4-). To give some example of some chemical coordination compounds with the anionic ligand F-, the fluoride anion, the following complexes can been mentioned: AlF63-, ZrF62-, SnF62-,TiF62-, PF6-, AsF6-, SbF6-, TiF62-, BF4-, SiF62-, CrF63-, FeF63-. A very important source of F- anions can come in the environment unfortunately through the use of the anions fluorides containing toothpastes. The fact moreover that, being a relatively weak acid, that is, weekly dissociated in the corresponding anion, so that mainly in form of HF (Hydrogen Fluoride), the HF, whose boiling point corresponds to about T = 19 °C, it will tend to evaporate and congest the atmospheric room – what is more a spontaneous the doubt arises whether the fluoride toothpastes might actually be harmful for the health, due to the very particular chemical reactivity of the fluoride anion in the aromatic organic chemistry, so that for instance for smokers such state of things could turn out to become quite risky -.
In marine medium the possibility of the formation of the complex PbCl3- seems to be quite important as the lead is used all over the world in the water pipelines. Not only it can form the temperature dependent soluble PbCl2, sparingly in cold water, quite soluble in warm water, as well as, due to the chemical anphoterism of the lead, the soluble complex Pb(OH)42-, which would then gradually and continuously dissolve in the marine water, and so readily cumulate in the solution in form of the soluble complexes PbCl3- or Pb(OH)42-. Such problem, and above all the use of the water pipelines made with the lead, Pb, must be absolutely tackled and solved.
A possible solution to this problem would consist in coating the internal walls of the water pipelines with inert materials, like ceramic, porcelain, glass and the like; but also possibly in using biodegradable plastic at least for the interior of the pipes. Such perspective might involve the disadvantage of likely having to change or to reset the inside of the pipes, as their biodegradability would cause them to last too shortly.
It is worth to strengthen again the fact that the presence of the detergents, plus the substances that they would bring into the marine water solution, like water insoluble organic solvents, chemical, fuels, oils and the like will also have, as already pointed out before, a very negative impact on the marine biosphere functionality, but indirectly also on the gas consumption of it, as well as parallelly on the gas transfer capabilities of the sea with the atmosphere.
Under this point of view also the industrial waste-fluids, possibly acid, are indeed highly pollutant, with their often strong altering effect on the marine buffer.
The marine buffer, whose basic pH has a value around 8,4, includes the following equilibria
CO32- + H2O = HCO3- + OH-
HCO3 - + H2O = H2CO3 + OH-
H2CO3 = H2O + CO2
Also this aspect, the basic marine pH, seems to be possibly important in making more soluble the atmospheric CO2, in form of HCO3- and carbonate CO32- in the marine water, so that the more the marine medium keep intact its basic natural buffer, the more the second and third equilibrium should tend to be driven on the left and, as a result, making available the CO2 at all depths, for the photosynthetic process, there where the photosynthesis is still possible in the marine medium. Similar considerations can be applied to the nitrogen oxides NxOy that from the atmosphere could enter directly in analogous way into the marine medium, dissolved in form of soluble anions nitrites and nitrates, respectively NO2- and NO3-.
Highly polluting heavy metals compounds and salts could in principle separate for solubility reasons from the marine water and precipitate onto the ground of the sea as insoluble compounds, which obviously cannot be obviously seen as purification method, because, if poisonous, or in any case normally in strong excess, they might give rise to a polluting layer at the bottom of the sea. So potentially they would eventually enter into the biology of the marine bio-system.
It is evident that in this context the canalisation systems for the agriculture might exert quite negative effects, as it will be more diffusely described the following. The irrigation of the agriculture particularly can prevent the marine medium from receiving those necessary inorganic salts, sands, mud and more in general nutrients, in adequate amount, for instance already for the renovation of the marine buffer system like it was always in the history of the seas/oceans. Indeed they particularly play a crucial role in restoring the buffer of the seas/oceans.
The nutrients-equilibrium of the seas/oceans is a quite complicated topic. In the ideal case there should be no waste of any kind into the sea, apart from the regular influx of the river water, provided that no canalisation work reduced the natural river flow - what is nowadays certainly not the case -, so that the seas/oceans would receive their regular amount of inorganic salts, sand and mud for the continuous renovation of the marine natural system. In principle there should be no fishing activity at all and neither any kind of artificial biological nutrients wasted into the marine medium. Otherwise a quite untrackable nutrients disequilibrium between the marine medium and the continental soil will arise, because of the subtracted nutrients from the seas/oceans in case of conspicuous continued fishing activity and the amounts of the nutrients, in any case forcefully with a completely different composition, returned possibly through the sewer-sludge together with the very reduced rivers water flow.
Nevertheless, also by taking into consideration the quite unlikely feasibility of such a perspective, one could on the other hand recognize another global nutrients equilibrium, that is an artificial one, in which the nutrients are namely returned to the marine medium through the sever sludge discharged, and taken back again through the fishing activity. In principle, certainly, also such mechanism could work, that is to be environmentally compatible. Still it remains necessary to be under the proper circumstances aware of the above mentioned factors and act with cautious discerning.
The chemical reactions in environmental context are under a certain point of view more complicated than in the laboratory, because they include transformations that on laboratory scale would often occur practically too slowly or not at all, as they would require such long times, so that they are often practically completely unknown. On the other hand these chemical and biochemical processes can take place by the environment in quite peculiar contexts, due to specific temperatures, pressures, nutrients availabilities, synergic biological associations and so on.
But as already pointed out what occurs on the sea/ocean ground is also of primary importance. Heterogeneous and insoluble chemical substances can deposit there, mixing up with the original uncontaminated bottom, like for instance heavy organic solvents, being the halogenated ones immiscible with the water and heavier than it, another aspect, this, that should be taken into consideration. But also heavy metals insoluble compounds, as already pointed out previously, would accumulate on the bottom of the sea/ocean, with the effect of dramatically altering the composition of the ground, making it virtually irreversibly poisonous and toxic.
The possible application of opportune bacteria, fungi / enzymes, possibly also if supported through a nutritive locally added specific substrate, like for instance sugar, could be used for the relatively quick degradation of petrol incidentally flown out into the sea, which would represent a very useful and precious environmental remedy in such catastrophic scenarios.
An analogous logic, even though certainly much more obvious, could be applied to the possibility of letting decompose the biodegradable rubbish-moiety under proper temperature, humidity and ventilation conditions, so that the biodegradable rubbish would not have to be separated from the general main one (to optimize the speed of the bones decomposition these conditions might need to be further optimized), as it would eventually literally then “disappear”.
The study of the penetration and diffusion of the solar light into the water medium depending on the wavelength of its spectral components represents a very important topic. An aspect of crucial importance is the actual turbidity caused from the suspended particles in the marine water, among which also the air bubbles should also be considered. Moreover the effects of all the dissolved detergents, organic solvents, fuels, synthetic chemicals, oils, and other petrol derivatives or industrial products possibly wasted into the sea, and particularly those chemicals able to adsorb the light in the visible region of the spectrum of the solar light, that is those compounds having a particular chemical structure - more precisely mostly with delocalized π orbitals – will be unfortunately the ones, that quite effectively will hinder the penetration of the visible solar light to further depths, causing a catastrophic inhibiting and disturbing factor for the marine biosphere. The regular penetration of the light to major depths and the normal biochemical function of the biological marine system in relation to it, including the various phenomena of bioluminescence represent aspects of vital importance in the marine life.
In general when dealing environmentally with the seas/oceans one should never forget that most of the pollution not only is no more removable, if not biodegradable, but, what is worse, in such a case would tend continuously to irreversibly cumulate ad increase.
Additional problems can cause the polluting matter, that could enter in contact with the marine water and possibly also dissolve in it. Among these the pollution of all that enormous amount of naval traffic that eventually comes into the water in form of exhaust gases and other combustion particles from unburned fuels and oils. But also the polymeric plastics dumped into the marine ground are destined, with the time, to continuously release soluble organic chemical fragments that in this way eventually may gradually enter into the marine medium at all the depths for unpredictable time duration.
A further extremely important environmental factor is represented from the corrosion processes. Through the corrosion of the metals, or their alloys with other metals, that at least, as long as they have oxidation the state of 0 (metal state) would remain heterogeneously separated from the environment, and take not part to the water solution yet, they can become dissolved in it and diffuse virtually everywhere as soon as they are oxidized to cations (cations can, under the proper circumstances, dissolve in water). The typical example about how the corrosion of the metals works is the one caused from the acids, but also atmospheric oxygen for instance can on the long time term put in motion analogues oxidizing processes. The proton, H+, of the acids, causes the real oxidation of the metal to its correspondent cations, and therefore their dissolving in water. The whole process can be very simply schematized with the following reaction: M + nH+ = Mn+ + ½ nH2, where n+ is a typical, stable, oxidation state of the considered element. It is immediate to think to the gigantic amount of weapons, civil transport vehicles, infrastructures, that daily can release through corrosion in the environment an extremely huge quantity of the inorganic matter, correspondingly to the metals of which they consist. Such oxidized compounds, with the general formula MXn, can remain under certain circumstances in the water solution, but also could remain as solid residual, once for example that the water on the soil has evaporated, and alter the ground composition, or even precipitate, because of the specific limits of solubility, from the marine water medium to the sea/ocean ground as insoluble chemical compounds, depending on the specific chemical context. In this way from a possibly already altered composition of the soil, so harmful for the biology, the previously mentioned factors, like the usual civil traffic metal-material, the metal-infrastructures and the weapons diffused all over the world would, through their continuous and unstoppable corrosion, gradually almost irreversibly alter further chemically our planet, both the seas/oceans as well as the soil. Only with the systematic and very careful collecting of the corrosion particles it will be possible, together with an intelligent limitation of their production and of the wise management of their disposals everywhere to prevent such tremendous disasters, so that we can create the conditions for a planet with a future that can be preserved.
As previously mentioned the continuous motion, both underwater as well as at the sea/ocean-surface, the oceanic currents represent a vital motor for the renovation and the oxygenation of the marine waters. In this case the crucial importance of the earth rotation around the own axis, which actually primarily causes the oceanic currents (together with the other specific gradients, like the temperature, the superficial driving force of the trade winds, the density and the viscosity of the water at the various depths). Such whole global marine motion of the seas/oceans is mainly a consequence of the inertia of the water mass respect to the planet earth. The earth rotates and the seas/oceans remain “delayed” with respect to the rotation motion and start consequently to move, to oppose inertially to the rotation of the earth around the own axis. This because the seas/oceans, in spite of certainly much more tightly bounded to the earth surface than the atmosphere, adhere only in part to it, because, being the water a relatively not viscous liquid, they are free to move in spite of their overall very huge weight. Parallelly the effect of the earth rotation under this point of view will become correspondingly increasingly stronger there, where the translational speed in the rotation of the earth, in spite the common equal angular speed, will be major; and such condition occurs in the tropical region, indeed there, where also the trade-winds are continuously active. The real motor also for the water earth evaporation, that also will be major in a little-gas containing atmosphere (ATM -, ATM --). At the same time additional various factors, like the salinity, the temperature, and the viscosity gradients of the marine waters can influence the same oceanic currents.
Interesting is also worth to make evident a potential risk for the sea water circulation in some case, because of the possible intentional or casual dumping of any kind of solid objects at sea, particularly at very specific places. So, for instance, the European Union should regularly very carefully check that no extraneous solid objects, like stones, cement-pieces, detritus or any other kind of material, which would hinder under particular circumstances the water circulation in depth, are let fall onto the marine bottom particularly at key geographical points, like for instance at the straits of Gibraltar, of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. What would dramatically hinder and make slower the natural sea circulation and waters interchange in depth with the confining sea in those places. The same is valid for other geographical points all over the world.
Two further concepts should be shortly mentioned at this point. The ebullioscopic features of a water solution, that is the chemical-physical trend of the dependence of the temperature of the boiling point from the amount of solute dissolved in a give solvent solution, so indirectly the evaporation extent of the same solvent, in this case the water, in relation to the concentration of the chemical substances dissolved in it. In the case of the seas/oceans, mainly the salinity of these, but also the presence of the pollutants introduced so far would also may play an important role. The rising of the actual boiling point can be expressed through the following simple equation: Δte = Ke . M (where Ke is the ebullioscopy constant of the solvent and M is the molality of the solution) in which one can grasp how progressively smaller becomes the evaporation extent, due to the rising of boiling point of the solution as a consequence of the amount of chemical matter dissolved in it, without the need actually of specifying what kind of chemical composition such a matter consists. Or secondly assuming the solute having a negligible vapour pressure, like for instance a not volatile compound or a salt dissolved in the water, according to the Raoult’s law, the lowering of the vapour pressure of the solution as consequence of the dissolution of that solute can be expressed from the following equation ΔP/P0Solvent = χsolute or (P - P0solvent) = - χsolute, that is the relative lowering of the vapour pressure of the solution stays in direct relation with the molar fraction of the not volatile solute, in this case the common marine salt.
And, as the boiling process occurs when the vapour pressure of the solution, which is a function of the temperature, equalizes the external pressure acting on the same solution, in this case the atmospheric one, it is evident that, being the vapour pressure of the solution lower at the same temperature, the boiling point would correspondingly rise with an increasing amount of dissolved not volatile solute, and the evaporation will be correspondingly minor.
The average cloud extension is primarily linked directly to the overall humidity in the atmosphere, a parameter of crucial importance because the clouds are assumed to reflect up to the 80 % of the solar light, playing in this way the additional crucial role in preventing the earth surface from receiving additional solar radiation. Moreover such an extension depends in turn also on the average earth temperature, so that the clouds extensions represent also a natural thermal shield factor.
An increasing of the boiling point of the marine water solution will be hence in relation with the extent of the salinity and of the chemical pollutants dissolved in the sea water, which would hinder unfortunately the evaporation process.
As well as the cryoscopic features of a solution put in relation in the analogous way the lowering of the temperature of the freezing point of a solution of a certain solvent with the concentration of the substances dissolved in it, and it is represented from the following formula: Δtc = Kc . M (where Kc is the cryoscopic constant of the solvent and M the molality of the solution), so that one can grasp how progressively minor becomes the extent of the ice formation, due to the lowering of freezing point of the solution as a consequence of the amount of chemical matter dissolved in it, without specifying what kind of chemical composition such a matter consists; even though in this case the by far most important agent is the salinity, but also pollutants can exert a significant effect.
So that for instance if at a certain temperature the expected ice formation does not arise or in any case in minor extent, particularly in the artic/antartic regions, that can be possibly explained with the presence of pollutants, like for instance, detergents or anti-freezing products, or exhaust gas by-products, like oils, fuels or even solvents and the like dissolved, possibly even all together, in the interested arctic region, even if the temperature lies much below the freezing point. Such “masking” effect might deceiving induce to think that the minor presence of the ice should be linked to a rising of the global temperature, but actually the minor formation or the melting of the ice extension at the pole could instead be caused firstly from the risen concentration of chemical substances dissolved in the marine medium, which lower the freezing point of the marine water in those geographical zones.
It is impossible to avoid of evaluating the purely speculative aspect, referring obviously on the geological order time term, that the sea/ocean salinity could gradually rise as result of the overall planetary river water influx.
Nevertheless in considering the marine context extended to the whole marine water mass other factors must be taken into consideration, that would put in doubt such a hypothesis. Among them the most important seem to be the possible slow gradual and equilibrated deposition of marine natural inorganic material on the bottom of the sea as consequence of the over-saturation of the marine water at the given cold temperature (it is known for instance, that the solubility generally strongly decreases with the temperature) and of the effects of the very strong pressure at high or even abyssal depths.
3 The Earth Atmosphere
According to this new vision, in order to optimize the atmosphere composition for solving the problem of the Global Warming, other gases other than the carbon dioxide are actually taken under consideration.
The noble gases, and more precisely those with a higher density than the air (the density of the Argon (Ar) d = 1.78 . 10-3 g/cm3, Krypton (Kr), d = 3.74 . 10-3 g/cm3, Xenon (Xe), d = 5.89 . 10-3 g/cm3, and Radon (Rn), 9.96 . 10-3 g/cm3) receive here a particular attention because any possible increment of them in the atmosphere would alter for a long time its composition. Fonts for new amount of noble gases in the atmosphere could come for instance, as it is known, through the petrol or natural gas extractions as consequence of the earth perforation at high depths, but also in principle from spontaneous geological phenomena, like volcanic eruptions and related processes, or even through earthquakes or seaquakes.
The percentage values of the atmospheric gases should be measured and collected very coherently, in order to reach a result that can be consulted confidentially for further references, otherwise measurements done in different times, in different places, from different researchers, with different instruments and under different conditions (local temperature, humidity of the air, pollution-levels, season, daily time, latitude, altitude, geographical context et cetera) would probably provide results not readily reliable.
The topic concerning the temperature dependence could be seen also from another perspective, that is from the point of view of the physician.
A biatomic “homonuclear” gas molecule, like the Nitrogen (N2) or the Oxygen (O2) is not expected to adsorb energy from the infrared light, but such an approach is quite misleading, because the lack of direct adsorption of the infrared radiation does not certainly mean that in an homonuclear molecule the bond/s cannot vibrate, so that a huge amount of for instance thermal energy can be stored in their apparently “silent” bond/s vibration modes, among other also according to the well known principle of the “energy equipartition”. And both in the case of the Nitrogen as well as in the case of the Oxygen we are talking of gases present in huge percentages in the atmosphere (over than 99 % !).
According to the model of the classical physic already mentioned before, the temperature is both a function of the number of the molecules pro volume-unit as well as of their average speed, so that already the number of gas particles, alias, macroscopically, the whole gas amount, would also have a direct effect on the temperature of the gaseous medium and vice versa. Such concept can be microscopically expressed for gases and vapours particles through the following equation:
½ m ū2= 3/2 kT
Where ū is the average quadratic speed of the gas particle species and k the Boltzmann constant; It becomes evident, as the above formula expresses the microscopic contribution of every gas particle, that, by increasing the number of the particles involved, or also, macroscopically, their density per volume, one will have a major thermal contribution. Evidently also the opposite reasoning is valid, that is, by supplying directly for instance heat to the gaseous mixture, as a results, microscopically, its gaseous particles will move faster.
The heat taken from the earth surface through the thermal conduction or through the spectroscopic adsorption of the solar light, influences directly the average translational speed of the atmospheric gas molecules, and in turn so the temperature. It becomes evident, as already just pointed out, that a major number of gas particles, a major gas density, which in the atmosphere corresponds to an overall major pressure, the thermal increment will be correspondingly major. This is the main reason why with the altitude the minor concentration of gas particles in the air, that is air more “rarefied”, accounts indeed for the corresponding drastic fall, remaining constant the geographic position, of the temperature by increasing the altitude and particularly at very high even in presence of strongly irradiating solar light.
The nitrogen can become very important in influencing the temperature of the atmosphere. Its variations in the atmosphere, according to some data reported in the literature, seem to overcome even the whole level-value of the carbon dioxide, the CO2, what it is not surprising, as the percentage of the nitrogen is over the 78 % whereas the one of the carbon dioxide just 0,03 %. So that, according to the above introduced principles the nitrogen can strongly influence, already in terms of gas particles per volume, the temperature of the earth atmosphere. Additionally, and very importantly, the nitrogen is, in presence of oxygen, and particularly as result of the strongly ionizating solar light at the various altitudes, in equilibrium with its NxOy (Nitrogen Oxides), that are without doubts spectroscopically quite active (strong adsorption in the IR, UV and so on). Together with the carbon monoxide, being often present in high rations/amounts in traffic-congested urban zones, they could be minimized by the use of proper catalysts that would be able to convert these gases respectively in the carbon-dioxide and the nitrogen - probably a very important breakthrough in relation with the petrol fuel based engines would consist in covering the most frequently used highways in form of tubes, and aspirating the polluted air inside - . Indeed, besides the car catalytic converters, the possible use of aspirating turbines containing proper catalysts, placed in high traffic centres, could accomplish such transformations and importantly improve the quality of the urban air - interestingly particularly the scooters might have a harmful impact on the quality of the traffic congested big towns -.
In general the higher is the level of the nitrogen, the higher is forcefully, for equilibrium reasons, the level of the nitrogen-oxides in presence of oxygen (like in the atmosphere) and of the energetic solar light. What is more the thermal aspect concerning the number of gas molecules present in the volume-unit is valid also for the nitrogen.
In connection with the atmosphere a thermo-spectroscopic study, in which exclusively the solar light is employed, remains practically the only eventually acceptable one.
Vapours originated from volatile solvents, fuels, organic and inorganic volatile compounds, exhaust gases of motorized-traffic, fumes produced from heating systems, chemicals, released intentionally or unintentionally in the atmosphere, can seriously worsen the problem of the thermal contribution added from them to the atmosphere. Indeed such vapours would also retain the heat adsorbed spectroscopically from the solar light. Finally also the long time term decomposition of artificial entities of common use that can theoretically decompose in small and even volatile chemical fragments, like for instance tyres, asphalt, polymeric plastic materials can in principle lead, after chemical decomposition, to additional vapours of chemical fragments in the air or to the contamination of the waters and of the soil.
A quite useful method based on the strong compression of volumes of air supposed to contain fine ashes or suspended dusts, combined together with other treatments like the centrifugation of the highly compressed volume, including also other possible measures, like cooling or even freezing of the same amount of air, powerful burning while flowing at high temperature through rooms/tunnels and proper filtering would be probably able to eliminate such apparently not importantly eliminable polluting heterogeneous material from the urban atmospheric composition, because of the obvious transformation of the carbon based finely suspended polluting partlicles in carbon dioxide, in turn possibly favoured from the presence of artificial excess of oxygen.
It is appropriate to subdivide the most important atmospheric gases in relation with the Global Warming in three different categories, according to the speed at which they can be transformed in other gases or materials.
First Group: gases that should not have appreciable importance in causing the Global Warming: To this group belong the following gases: helium, hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide: so, the first two, helium and hydrogen, are believed to continuously leave the atmosphere for gravitational reasons also in normal conditions, that is without excess of atmospheric gases, a term that here is symbolically defined with the abbreviation ATM+ or even ATM++ and so without heating up of the Earth-System.
The Carbon Monoxide, very poisonous (but reversibly!), is present at higher concentration in the air virtually only in very congested urban contexts, and practically only under such circumstances can become environmentally important. It should thereby considered not to have global thermal importance, indeed due to its average very low percentage in the atmosphere.
The methane is the chief example of a gas, the one of recent biochemical origin, and due to its quite low density, definitely lower that the one of the air (the density of the methane vapour being 0.55 vs. the ~ 1 of the air) that represents for this reason a key gas in this context, that is to minimize the effects of the Global Warming. Actually, if one had a look to the densities of the main atmospheric gases, then it would become clear that the gravitational loss of the methane from the earth system would represent one of the best solutions to the Global Warming; and for this reason it should be quite wise to optimize the natural biochemical transformation of the organic matter into the methane, so with other words to create the ideals essentials environmental requirements for this to occur. Indeed, because of being relatively very light, the methane particularly in case of an atmospheric overpressure or in anyway excess of gases, would be the one most readily lost through the sidereal levels of the earth atmosphere. If one considered how much methane can be formed when the dead vegetation and animals are decomposed through the microorganisms under certain conditions, then it becomes absolutely clear, through an improved photosynthetic consumption process of the carbon dioxide, that the earth could indirectly get rid of continuously a very considerable amount of carbon dioxide, the CO2, after having being converted for instance into the cellulose of the plants and partly released as methane when the dead plants, or part of them, like for instance the fallen leaves, and also the dead animal rests, are decomposed. It remains nevertheless very interesting to state how much methane can arise, depending also on further parameters like the average humidity, the biological functionality of the environment (particularly linked to the sort and the amount of the microorganisms available) and finally on the chemical composition of the plants and of the soil.
In other words to the first group belong those gases that should give low thermal contribution to the atmosphere, either for being low percentage inter-convertible gases in others more abundant (and stable) atmospheric gases, either mostly for being so light, that they can be able to leave easily the earth atmosphere. Under this last point of view the methane, as consequence of the transformation of putrefying vegetation or animal matter, can become one of the chief solutions to the problematic of the Global Warming.
The Second Group: moderately important gases that are present in relatively big amounts in the atmosphere like the oxygen, O2, and the carbon-dioxide, the CO2, but that are at the same time involved in very important and mainly quite fast biosynthetic and chemical processes like, for instance the photosynthesis being the most important, represented from the following transformation equilibrium: n H2O + n CO2 = (CH2O)n + n O2 ; or the burning processes, like for instance, very simply CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O or also 2C2H6 + 7 O2 = 4 CO2 + 6 H2O.
The energetic source of the natural photosynthetic process is obviously represented from the sun light, during which particularly the carbon dioxide, CO2, is consumed and the oxygen, O2, is produced. Independently from the specific detailed transformations occurring during such overall biochemical pathways, the fact that the energy source for the photosynthesis, that is the light, is available only during the daily time, and what is more if one considers that part of subsequent biochemical pathway are a consequence of such energy stored under chemical form, without doubt a general important transpiration extent must be considered also during the night time in all the living parts of the plants/trees.
The potential improvable quick consumption on planetary scale of the carbon dioxide, the CO2, through the photosynthesis is enormous, whose percentage presence in the atmosphere being about the 0.03 %, through the photosynthesis, should make such gases not the chief “negative candidate” to be considered for most effectively tackling the challenge of the Global Warming.
Third Group: very important gases in influencing the Global Warming: any noble gases, that, possessing moderate to high density, as result, like already mentioned, for instance of the petrol and natural-gas extractions or also of geological events like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and the like, could increase and cumulate steadily in the atmosphere. Particularly if having a big density, so that they would tend to remain in the lower layers of the atmosphere, with two negative effects, mainly: on one side an over-presence of noble gases would produce a highly gas containing, over-pressured atmosphere, what here is defined with the abbreviating term ATM+ or ATM++. Such state of things should be absolutely avoided as additionally hinders, among other factors, the seas/oceans evaporation - remember: high pressure = low evaporation // low pressure = high evaporation -. On the other side they would disturb the photosynthetic processes, by making it slower, because the concentration of the therein involved gas carbon dioxide, the CO2, would become lower at the interested surface, as higher concentrations of such noble gases would be present there, and in this way to some extent interfere there where the photosynthesis takes place. Any increment of the heavy noble gases is additionally destined unfortunately to last for relatively very long time.
A similar reasoning could be in principle proposed also for the nitrogen, whose periodical variations, according to the published data, even if it seems enzymatically fixable in the soil through certain plants and microorganisms, seem often even to exceed the whole value of the carbon dioxide, the CO2; and in equilibrium with the nitrogen are also the nitrogen-oxides, NxOy, with a high thermo-spectroscopic potential (IR, visible, UV and so on) for the atmosphere. But even the same Nitrogen, N2, in spite of being transparent to the IR radiation (vibrational energy), it will be store, after the adsorption of energy in other form, like for instance in translational speed through thermal conductivity, also indirectly in vibrational energy. The fertilizers, used for the agriculture, particularly the ammonium-phosphates, nitrates and the like are unfortunately a source for the eventual rising of the nitrogen in the atmosphere, that will last relatively for a much longer time compared with the gases of the second group. Differently from the carbon (as petrol or gas from underground reserves), our planet does certainly not dispose of such big reserves of nitrogen (in form of nitrogen-compounds). In any case an earth surface with all its optimized natural capabilities in order to fix the maximum the atmospheric nitrogen into the soil should represent one of the fundamental scopes to be reached and huge extent of scientific and technological research must probably still be done in this ambit. For instance the element molybdenum, Mo, is known to be contained in the enzyme nitrogenase present in the blue-green algae and in the primitive- or archeobacteria, part of them symbiotic, with for instance the leguminosae plants; or for example also the plant “alfaalfa” is known for being able to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in the ground.
The earth would hence tends, as consequence of the minor amount of the gases belonging to the third group (nitrogen, noble gases, plus solvents, fuels and chemical vapours in general) to a minor heat content as consequence of the low gas containing atmosphere, defined here as ATM- or even ATM--. Such circumstances would imply a correspondingly enhanced water evaporation from the sea surface because of the lower pressure on one side, obviously assuming that the temperature remains the same, and, on the other side, because a the more rarefied atmosphere, also a stronger interaction of the solar light with the earth marine surface, what would lead to a minor overall atmospheric gas filtering towards the solar radiation, to additional improved evaporation from the marine medium and very likely also an increased atmospheric “friction” with it, as it will be explained diffusely later, fact that also will enhance the water evaporation at the sea surface.
The solar light consists in a wide range of wavelengths, in progressively rising energetic content, starting from the radio waves (less energetic) until the γ-Rays (more energetic). As a whole the solar light-spectrum can be subdivided in several sections, each of one identified from a certain specific kind of spectroscopic radiation, corresponding approximately almost in a quite separate way to progressively different kind of energetic interaction with the chemical molecules. So, starting with the less energetic radio waves, interesting the magnetically induced states of spin, moving to further increasing energetic radiation form of the solar light, like the microwaves (rotational movement of the molecules), the infrared radiation, or IR (vibrational spectroscopy), the visible and the more energetic UV ( both including the external electronic interactions), the X-Rays (internal electronic transitions), until the γ-Rays (nuclear processes), through all such a “cocktail” of wavelengths, expressed in order of increasing energetic content, the atmospheric gases are during the daily time continuously irradiated from the solar light. That is why it makes certainly no sense to concentrate the attention just on the infrared light, IR, and what is more on the carbon dioxide, the CO2, whose percentage in the atmosphere reaches hardly the 0,03 %.
It should be remembered that the flowing magnetic field of the earth could in principle also play a role by letting move the ionized, that is charged, atmospheric gas atoms or molecules into the as well as flowing magnetic field trajectories. Such state of things should reasonably work best indeed at the more rarefied cold (with low thermal agitation) high levels of the atmosphere, where the ionization in connection with the more effective solar radiation (γ-Rays, X-Rays and UV) can occur particularly effectively. Such a state of things would create those conditions under which even the electronically very stable heavier noble gases might in principle statistically get expelled from the atmosphere after having being ionized, as in fact the heavier ones are quite fortunately those with the lower ionization energies among the noble gases.
A particularly important aspect at this point concerning in general the movements of the atmosphere that should be very carefully investigated consists in the well known transportation of huge amounts of desert sands and other very light fine particles as result also of the atmospheric precipitation induced erosion of the mountains, to long distances from part of the winds and of the combined various ascending and horizontal movements of the atmosphere. What can be the extent of such a phenomenon will remain probably unclear until the earth atmospheric circulation system will have been optimized. Nevertheless it ought to be anyway of appreciable importance for the partial remineralisation of the soil. That should be expected on the basis that the earth atmosphere, if less gas containing, would become less diffused, magnifying such an effect. They are originated from the earth rotation around its axis. Indeed, in spite of the fact that the “angular speed” of the earth, being a “rigid” object, is constant everywhere on the earth, its linear speed (distance on time unit), in relation to the space, an additional potential external “friction-agent” with the atmosphere, is much higher at the equator and in the tropical regions than at the poles or at the intermediate latitudes. That is why there the trade-winds seem to be much more effective in the tropical regions, which should lead to a more mixed up atmosphere. Indeed, just like in the case of the seas/oceans, the atmosphere, that completely “covers” the earth surface, surrounds it gravitationally, actually is not strictly part of it. As a result for reasons of physical inertia tends to remain, for an external observer, “delayed” with respect with the earth motion, and so the trade winds arise more effectively there where the outer translational speed of the earth rotation is faster, like in the tropical regions, where the circular translational speed of the earth circumference is by fur much faster than at the poles (still remaining, logically, the angular speed constant, being the earth a rigid body). Additionally the same earth interaction with the open space, being the space vacuum non absolute, and in any case a diffusive external factor, so that either could the atmosphere macroscopically feel a not negligible resistance, either part of it should tend to diffuse slightly externally and back and therefore remain delayed in respect with its corresponding more internal layers, equivalent to encounter a “certain resistance”, such state of things would additionally magnify this factor, which would be gradually transferred to the lower layers of the atmosphere. As a result a low gas containing atmosphere will magnify the “friction” at the earth surface, and particularly in relation to the marine one, where the humidity unsaturated, continuously moving air, regarding the humidity content, will let evaporate, through a real macroscopic enhanced “friction”, a significantly major amount of water vapours, furthermore increased because of an averagely under-pressured atmosphere (ATM -, ATM - -). A “gas poor atmosphere” would have trade winds correspondingly very “avid” of water so that an increased evaporation would take place, improving the natural cooling system of the earth under several points of view.
Moreover a stronger solar radiation interaction with the earth surface would occur, as a result indeed of a more rarefied atmosphere and less filtering factor towards the solar light. So an enhanced solar radiation interaction, absolute average minor atmospheric pressure, continuous sweeping of the marine surface of an incremented and faster amount of air under-saturated with water vapour, ebullioscopic lowering of the marine water solution, etcetera; result: more overall evaporation.
But let now explain this kind of atmospheric “friction” at the marine surface with a simple example: although it is going on here of the atmosphere, that is a mixture of gases, also the liquids, being fluid, in this case the water, could be used in an almost “analogous” way, as example, to explain the before described concept. So let’s imagine a person who is pulling a floating flat wooden board near the seaside. If she/he pulls quite fast with a rope the floating board and if the depth of the water is very limited, for instance just few tens of cm, then, after having pulled the floating board, she/he will certainly observe, if the bottom consists of sand, that the ground has become very turbid, with a lot of fine sand moving chaotically at all levels. In such a case, due to the fact that the sea depth is “less diffused”, that is less “water containing”, she/he will have caused a big friction between the two ends, in turn the water surface and the sand-bottom, just like it would occur, on the opposite - and obviously with different proportions on the here specifically considered system - between the outer sidereal levels of the atmosphere and the marine/oceanic surface under a low gas containing atmosphere (ATM -, ATM - -). But if the same person pulled now the floating wooden board there, where the water is for instance more than 1 meter deep with the same speed, afterwards she/he would still observe practically no alteration of the sea ground, that is virtually no movement of the same fine sand on the bottom. This simply because, being longer the distance between the water surface and the bottom, the induced current with the floating board is transferred much less efficiently to the bottom, due to the incremented factor of the casual water molecules collisions, in this second case being them much more conspicuous in number, between the molecules of the fluid (water) medium, whose continuous chaotic casual motion gradually extinguishes and opposes casually and inertially the exerted superficial current. That is the deeper is the depth, the bigger is the water content, then the pulled floating board will gradually cause less and less, until virtually no friction on the sand bottom of the sea. In other words the immobility of the sand surface. A perfectly analogue situation could be conceptually applied, even if in a complete context with the earth atmosphere.
A more humid atmosphere is the result of such a model, with incremented atmospheric precipitations and more humidity in general in its various very well known forms.
Now, for concluding, by referring very shortly some considerations to the ozone layer, that would be apparently located at altitudes around 25.000 meters, some interrogatives still remain open: how can be a gas, that in turn already is an allotropic form of the oxygen, and that at such altitudes is very rarefied, play such an important role in adsorbing the solar radiation ? How will vary its concentration depending on the latitude, knowing that also the gravitational force varies progressively from the equator until the pole ? What influence would exert the earth magnetic field ? Why an ozone depletion should not continuously drive indirectly the migration of the ozone from atmospheric regions where there is a higher concentration of it to regions where the is a poorer concentration of such gas ?
4 Thermal Factors on the Earth Surface
In spite of being of decisive importance, the thermal aspects at the earth surface can be described very simply and straightforwardly, representing part of them certainly already known matter.
The ground heats up very variably depending on the chemical composition of the soil and from what it is occupied, as well as in relation with the latitude and the altitude of the specific geographical area. As it is known, there, where urban centres are located, with a high density of some certain kind of artificial material like cement, asphalt, metal and other artificial materials, that easily heats up, the local temperature of the ground as well as the one of the various infrastructures can rise much faster to higher values than in the corresponding uncontaminated green natural context, so that a correspondingly major amount of heat is transferred to the layers of the atmosphere and diffused, at least partly, through the wind horizontally to the adjacent parts of the atmosphere.
In general we can affirm that in the most urban or in any case artificial contexts the temperature reached during the sunny daily time will be locally appreciably higher because the earth surface becomes warmer under the solar radiation, even if this value is not easy to be quantified, because of the continuous heat transfer process to the overlaying atmospheric layer of the atmosphere. In this way not only can the ground reach higher temperature values, but also, very importantly, the lower levels of the atmosphere, the ones that stay more in contact with the earth surface, become also consequently warmer; representing this the first step of such kind of heat conduction process. Either the natural ascending movements of warm air volumes within the atmosphere, as well as the thermal conductivity, microscopically seen mainly as result of the casual collision of the gas particles against each other, in turn also partly related to the characteristic speed of the various gas particles types, might be not enough able to dissipate such heat excess, which afterwards can be also transmitted, simply through the wind, firstly horizontally to other atmospheric contiguous parts. So that, on the whole, globally, the planet earth would become eventually warmer.
Therefore the infrastructures in general play a very important role in heating up the earth surface, whereas the green plants can easily transform the potentially heating solar radiation in chemical energy for their metabolic processes, among which the photosynthesis is certainly the most important, without almost heating up at all. Differently from the surfaces occupied from the green vegetation, the areas consisting of dry plants, often present in the farm land, for not mentioning the vast desert areas, will conversely tend usually to heat up majorly. An internationally managed straightforward program of artificially re-greening the earth-surface in every single country/nation every year, progressively, according to proper yearly pre-programmed increments, is absolutely necessary.
It should be obvious that also the tutelage of the fauna ought to represent one of the most important aspects in the ambit of such a project, together with a wise distribution of the green zones in presence of agricultural areas, not too far from each other, with a suitable interconnection-extent, to make easier as much as possible the wild life and hence the development of the fauna.
With other words the same agriculture should be thought in such a way to be able to maximize the alternation between the various used geographical areas for such purpose, and in the ambit of an economical system in which the minimum waste of resources occurs.
The matter originated from the natural metal corrosion of which consist weapons, means of transport and certain types of metallic infrastructure-materials can diffuse randomly and progressively, altering the composition of the ground.
Also the irrigation, carried out with the river water, could in principle cause a related problem. Differently from the rainwater, that instead consists virtually of “distilled”, salts free water, the irrigation river water contains several inorganic salts and compounds, that eventually only in part, and what is more selectively, are metabolized from the plants of the agriculture. As a result, after repeated crops, that is the removal of the artificial farmed plants, the ground could become increasingly reach of the remaining inorganic elements that were not (or at least in minor amount) contained in the harvested plants, and so alter partly its chemical composition and, at the same time, the irrigation water would add more random inorganic salts and compounds; as a result the final chemical composition of the soil could appreciably vary. So that in an analogous way to the case of the corrosion, the soil would have its chemical composition changed, with the consequence of possibly reaching on the whole, due to thermal reasons, higher temperatures under the effect of the solar radiation.
The chemical aspects linked to such state of things could also exert dangerous effects on the biochemistry of the plants and of the overall bio-system, fact that in turn is also linked, as already mentioned previously, with the effectiveness of the photosynthetic process. What is more the soil could get to a variable extent even somewhat toxic and poisonous because of its unpredictably altered chemical composition. So, it is actually quite dubious that a copious irrigation represents the only valid solution for the agriculture. On the short time term this could be even the case, but on the long one the effects are likely to turn out quite risky, because of the progressive alteration of the soil composition there, where the agriculture is carried out. Quite interestingly for instance also all the gold that is used for storing the gold ingots all over the word, might cause a negative chemical gradient by the environment in form of low presence of the gold in the soil, with presently unpredictable consequences; from the above discussion it should result evident that a good health advice would be represented from varying several kind of mineral water in the diet.
In part we should rely on a climate compatible agriculture and on much more conspicuous and regularly occurring atmospheric precipitations. Actually by applying straightforwardly the principles introduced and discussed so far, this will bring the earth atmosphere to produce a certainly major extent of atmospheric precipitations and humidity in general.
If the employed fertilizers in the agriculture will not contain the necessary nutrients or will not be perfectly balanced (an almost impossible perspective), a concentration gradient induced from the alteration of the ground composition even in other zones not directly linked to the specific agriculture activity would arise, due to the local gradient of chemical concentration in the ground. An increased humidity of the soil would reasonably favour a uniformity in the concentration of the various natural chemical species through the gradient induced tight migration of them within the soil. And this because the various inorganic compounds and salts would entropically tend to migrate more easily on reasons of solubility and of electrostatic gradients, either vertically from the deeper levels of the ground, either horizontally, from the contiguous zones, and this would occur in a particularly effective way if the ground were more humid. A disadvantage of such state of things would consist in the relative chemical impoverishment of the geographic areas near to the one interested from the agriculture, as a consequence of the nutrients migration within the soil. Moreover part of the nutrients contained in the sewer-sludge, provided being completely “biological”, that is absolutely free from chemicals and ions arising from corrosion processes, detergents and the like, should be indeed directly or indirectly returned to the geographical areas where the agriculture or pasture-system had been carried out – incidentally mentioned the powder preparation EPARCYL, as biological activator, seems to be a quite promising product in this ambit -. The same above described logic should be extendable to the enormous amount, on planetary scale, of the nutrients contained in the cemeteries and in the biological rubbish deposits.
Nevertheless a cautious and not indiscriminately intensive exploitation of the nutrients potential of the ground stays at the basis both for the environmental tutelage, as well as for optimization of the quality in the reaching of products from natural origin; with important advantages also for the health.
Still it remains always open the problematic of a possible nutrients disequilibrium between the seas/oceans and the soil. Only the complete lack of marine fishing activity together with the complete banning of any sort of discharge into the rivers, the lakes and the seas/oceans could avoid this drawback. The goal of a wise and practical overall environmental planetary compromise might consist in the following strategy, if this were meant only to be applied in part: that is to keep the canalisation works, but to manage them with cautious discerning, by applying long term break times between the various utilisation phases of the agricultural areas. As well as returning back to the seas/oceans an equivalent part of the nutrients derived from the biological waste deposits, the rest from the cemeteries, and sewer sludge to compensate the by now already become heavy impoverishment of the seas/oceans because of the fishing activity represent a crucial aspect to be dealt with. And in any case a certainly difficult to be quantified entity.
Another problem is represented from the excess of carbon, coming from the carbon dioxide transformed through the photosynthesis in organic matter that would eventually alter the original earth surface chemical composition. The petrol and natural gas extraction/consumption can cause such big potential drawback, namely indirectly, through the production of the carbon dioxide excess, and after the photosynthetic process and the subsequent transformation of the died plants in humus, the earth ground might become continuously and increasingly richer in carbon because of a lower relative concentration of the vital nutrients in the soil. A fact that could probably cause a slowing down of several biochemical natural processes, including the same natural carbon dioxide consumption through the photosynthesis. An aspect, this, that cannot be certainly hidden to the public, but for which some possible solutions can be theoretically foreseen. One of them like for instance the gradual precipitation on the deep and obscure marine ground of biological waste or dead material coming from the various depth levels of the biosphere, among which dead algae and animal material or rests, other microorganisms decomposition products and fishes masses of excrements, particularly in case that at those very high pressures and under the virtually complete lack of the solar light, the bacterial or fungal degradation could occur so slowly that such deposits would tend to increase; an aspect that would rationalize an ineluctable rising of the marine level. Such problem is naturally compensated on the very long term from the tectonic natural motion of the sea bottom ground, associated among other often to earthquakes.
A possible very important natural process to compensate for the above introduced drawback consists in the transformation of the biological organic matter in the low density gas methane, through a plenty of possible microorganisms, depending on the specific conditions. And the low density gas methane would be a very good candidate to leave then the system earth-atmosphere, so that the harmful excess of the carbon in the earth biosphere could be lost.
Finally, the so called green-technology implies, as already mentioned, on the other side some drawbacks, as in any case it produces and often stores energy and distributes heat on the earth surface, a further disadvantage in the ambit of the problematic of the Global Warming. Additionally often this kind of energy-sources are linked with the use of accumulators that can represent a very dangerous chemical potential for the environment, because they often contain very strong acids solutions or highly toxic heavy metals.
So finally one could conclude, that the real problem of the Global Warming consists in a less efficient earth natural cooling system.
The concepts expressed in this article were submitted to the no profit online Pakistan Journal “Economistan” on the 28.08.2011 and published on the no more today active link: http://www.economistan.org/article/the-global-warming-causes-remedies-and-risks/.
Such new vision of the Global Warming in all its aspects, causes, remedies and risks, had been mostly developed between the years 2004 and 2005 and sent gradually to several institutions, online magazines and governments before to its publication.
* In previous Editions of this Articles, particularly on the no profit link: http://www.economistan.org/article/the-global-warming-causes-remedies-and-risks/ , available online until the year 2016, there had been also the occasion theoretically to deny even the second principle of the thermodynamic (!), according to which the disorder of the energy in the spontaneous transformations (but possibly also of the matter), in the Universe steadily entropically increases.
Actually this statement seems to be valid in my opinion just for confined gravitational contexts.
Already in independent gravitational contexts, like for instance the earth, there are several ordering factors concerning the matter, like the gravitational force, the density and the mass of the objects in relation to it, the decomposition of the dead biological matter and its recycling in new life forms or indirectly in new available nutrient material, some chemical physical forces, like the ones that keep the water all together as a continuous medium (hydrogen bond) in big masses like the lakes, the seas and the oceans. The same biological life, even if not completely, tends naturally to be ordered according climatic and geographical contexts; actually, in my opinion, rather because of the Darwin´s theory, according to which the animal species becomes differentiated through natural selection, it is also very important to consider their voluntary gradual or sudden migration for several reasons (climate, availability of nutriment, mimetization possibility and the like). So the planet earth keeps naturally already a relatively high degree an order concerning the natural matter and events and transformations.
But essential is in the open space, where the gravitational force, together with the possible also strong effect of electro/magnetic fields at long distance seems to (re)generate continuously a fluctuating order of matter and of the energy; with other words it is not possible to speak about an continuous increase of the disorder, either of the energy, either of the matter in the universe. For the matter there are certainly very few doubts, due to the directing action of the gravitational force, but for the energy, which is also partly dispersed in the open space continuously travelling in form of radiation at different wavelengths in all their frequencies as key way of movement of the energy between the important gravitational corps, it seems also to become eventually also part of such quite ordered fluctuating system. Which are the main key forces that attract the light in the dark universe, so that it cannot get diffused, unless it is not part of an atmosphere (presence of gases and vapours) or either it is directly emitted from the luminous source, represents the most challenging scientific task, whereby the result is evident, but the cause certainly less; in any case the study of the light beams under vacuum according to different degrees of energy/light density and among different potentially attracting side forces represents a good scientific ambit of research. Probably there are in the universe also different levels of vacuum, for instance the vacuum in the solar system between the various planets will be presumably much more ordered, but also certainly quite“denser” than an intergalactic one, fact that would also allow much higher speeds.
Does this state of things signify that the second principle of the thermodynamic is not valid ? quite “probably” or even “evidently”.
Finally it is very interesting to ascribe the origin and power of the gravitational force to the nuclear reactions in the nucleus of an important gravitational mass of the universe, as I observed in the same enclosure joined to the above mentioned web-link active until the year 2016 (http://www.economistan.org/article/the-global-warming-causes-remedies-and-risks/). The bigger is the mass, the bigger will be generally the weight acting in the centre of the planet and the therefore increasing impossibility for the matter to stand such enormous pressure. So that, together with the temperature rising and the fusion of the matter, new chemical elements with their respectively different number of proton and neutrons in the atomic nucleus might continuously arise and gradually recombine, and the protons and neutrons reaggregate, because other nuclei of the various elements, with their cluster of protons and neutrons, would collapse from their essentially spherical bunch-like union of protons and neutrons due to the enormously squeezing weight induced pressure on them.
Does the petrol originate in this way ? It is possible, and if this is the case, then the petrol will arise without end.
Also, could other planets have to do with a different chemistry, with major or minor number atomic elements ? Also this aspect, obviously for certain relatively limited in the extent, would be a very likely consequence of the collapse-recombination mechanism of the chemical element-nuclei in the middle of an important mass entity of the space.
Under this point of view it should be reasonably useful as cure ingredient against cancer, preventive or not, to drink at least periodically for instance Coca-Cola, because it contains phosphoric acid !